ENGLISH FOR SMK "Conditional Sentences"

A conditional sentence consists of two clauses; the if-clause, and the main clause. The if-clause can come first or second. When it comes first, we usually put a comma between the two clauses.


If I have enough time, I'll watch the football match.  
I'll watch the football match If I have enough time

Conditional Sentence Type 1
When do we use conditional sentence type 1?
    1. We use conditional sentence type 1 to talk about possible situations in the present or future.
      • If you leave earlier, you will not be late.
      • If you open the windows, the room will get some fresh air.
    2. We often use conditional type 1 to talk about facts or processes:
      • If you heat water to 100 degrees, it will boil.
      • If we stare into the sun, we will hurt our eyes.
The if-clause is in the present tense, the main clause uses will and the infinitive, or simple present.
Conditional Sentence Type 1
TYPE
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
MEANING
Type 1
Simple present
If you work hard,
Simple present
you succeed.
Simple future
you will succeed.
True in the present or possible in future
It’s possible to happen in the future
Note:
Other modal verbs can also be used in place of will and would.
    • If it rains like this all day, the river might flood. (might = will possibly)
    • If it rains like this all day, the river could flood. (could = will be able to)
Conditional Sentences Type 1 refers to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

2.   Conditional Sentence Type 2
When do we use conditional sentence type 2?
Conditional sentence type 2 is used to talk about actions or situations that are not taking place in the present or future, but we can imagine the probable result.
o    If we didn’t live in a big city, we would not have to breathe polluted air everyday. (In truth, we live in a big city)
o    If he were here, I would tell him about my plan.
(In fact, he isn’t here)
The if-clause is in the simple past or the past continuous tense, the main clause uses would and the infinitive, or would be and the present participle (Verb-ing).
Conditional Sentence Type 2
TYPE
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
MEANING
Type 2
Simple past
If you worked hard,
Past continuous
If it were not raining now,
would + simple form
you would succeed.
would be + present participle
would be going out for a walk.
Untrue in the present
Fact:
 You don’t work hard, so you don’t succeed
Fact:It’s raining now, so I’m not going out for a walk.
Note:
§  ‘Were’ is used for both singular and plural subjects.
§  The use of type 2 conditional in “If I were you, I would ………” is a common form of advice.

Conditional Sentences Type 2 refers to an action in the present that could happen if the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change because it is very unlikely.

3.   Conditional Sentence Type 3
When do we use conditional sentence type 3?
Conditional sentence type 3 is used to talk about actions or situations that did not take or were not taking place in the past, but we can imagine the probable result.
o    If you had come to the party last night, you would have met my cousin. (In truth, you didn’t come to the party last night)
o    If he had not been late this morning, his teacher would not have punished him. (In truth, he was late)

The if-clause is in the past perfect or the past perfect continuous tense, the main clause uses would have and past participle (Verb 3), or would have been and present participle (Verb-ing).

Conditional Sentence Type 3
TYPE
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
MEANING
Type 3
Past perfect
If you had worked hard,
Past perfect continuous
If it had not been raining yesterday afternoon,
would have + past participle
you would have succeeded.
would have been + present participle
would have been going out for a walk.
Untrue in the past
Fact:
 You didn’t work hard, so you didn’t succeed.
Fact: It was raining yesterday afternoon. I was not going out for a walk.


Conditional Sentences Type 3 refer to situations in the past. They express hypothetical results to past given situations.


ENGLSIH FOR SMK "EXPRESSION ASKING AND GIVING PERMISSION"


When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. It is desirable to use the word "please."

Asking for Permission:
  • Can I go out, please?
  • May I open the window, please?
  • Please, can I have a look at your photo album?
  • Please, may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish?
  • Do you mind if I smoke?
  • Would you mind if I asked you something?
  • Is it okay if I sit here?
  • Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone?
  • Do you mind if I leave now
  • May I come in ?
  • Could I ………, please ?
  • Excuse me, could I try to turn on the computer ?
  • I wonder if I could borrow your camera?
  • Etc.
Giving permission (positive response):
-By all means                -Yes, of course Not at all
-Go ahead                     -Yes that’s fine
-Yes, why not                -Yes certainly
-All right please do       - Etc.

Refusing permission  (negative response):
-I’m afraid you can’t do that
-You’re not allowed to…..
-You should not……
-No, I am sorry you can’t

Examples of English Conversations:

On the Train

Armand   : Excuse me. Would you mind my opening that window?
Bryan      : Not at all, please go ahead.
Armand   : Thank you. It’s very hot here.
Bryan      : True. Can I take some water from your pitcher?
Armand   : Certainly. Can I have that magazine for a while?
Bryan      : I’m sorry, I haven’t finished reading it. I’ll give it to you as soon as I've finished.
Armand   : Thank you.

ENGLISH FOR SMK "MAKING INVITATION"

Making invitations



Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies?
What do you say in English when someone invites you? 

Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations

Inviting:

  • Do you want to go to the movies tonight?
  • Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow?
  • Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday?
  • How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner?
  • How about going to the movies?
  • Care to come over for lunch?
  • I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink.
  • We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party.

Accepting invitations:

  • Sure. What time?
  • I'd love to, thanks.
  • That's very kind of you, thanks.
  • That sounds lovely, thank you.
  • What a great idea, thank you.
  • Sure. When should I be there?

Declining invitations:


  • I can't.  I have to work.
  • This evening is no good.  I have an appointment.
  • I'm busy tomorrow.  Can I take a rain check* on that? 
  • That's very kind of you, but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon.
  • Well, I'd love to, but I'm already going out to the restaurant.
  • I'm really sorry, but I've got something else on.
  • I really don't think I can - I'm supposed to be doing something else

EXPRESSING COMMAND, PROHIBITION AND REQUEST



Here are examples of expressing commands, prohibitions and requests:
- Will you open it please ?
- Could you help me please ?
- Would you hold on a moment please ?
- Please sit down!
- Sit down please !
- Keep quite would you please !
- Would you be quite please ?
- Would you please come on time ?
- Would you mind opening the door please ?
- Don’t disturb me please !
- Don’t go home please !
- Please don’t smoke here !
- Don’t ever cheat!
- Don’t be naughty!
- Don’t be careless !

Responses for command. Prohibition and request :
A. Possitive response :
- Yes of course
- Certainly
- Sure
- All right
- All right, I won’t
- Trust me
- That’s OKEY
- No, that’s all right (khusus jawaban would you mind)

B. Negative response :
- I’m sorry I can’t
- Sorry I can’t
- I am sorry but I have to ….

- I am afraid I can’t

OFFERING, ACCEPTING, AND REFUSING


OFFERING, ACCEPTING, AND REFUSING
Learn some expressions of offering somethings and how to accept or refuse.


Offering :
-Would you like to go out for dinner ?
-Would you care to dance Mrs Brent ?
-Would you like desert ?
-What about dance Denise ?
-Do you want me to clean the machine ?
-Should I get food for the picnic ?

Accepting an offer :
-I’d love to
-That would be nice
-OK, sound great
-Yes, please
-Just what I need

Refusing an offer :
-Sorry I can’t
-Sorry, I can’t. Thanks anyway.
-No, I can’t
-Thanks but I….
-No, it’s Ok. Thanks
-No, it’s all right really

ENGLISH FOR SMK "MAKING RESERVATION"

EXPRESSIONS IN MAKING AND HANDLING RESERVATION 

(ungkapan yang dipakai untuk membuat dan menangani pesanan).



Making reservation :
Handling reservation :
-I’d like to book………. please.
-I would like to reserve……….
-Can I make a reservation……
-Could I reserve……
-I want to book……
-I’d like to make ……..
-Yes, sir. ………
-Yes, madam. ……
-I’m sorry sir. We’re full this weekend
-Yes, of course.
-I’m afraid that all….have been reserved
-Certainly sir.
-I am sorry. All……have been sold out

CONTOH DIALOG "MAKING RESERVATION"

A: Shogun Restaurant.
B: Hi, I would like to make a dinner reservation.
A: Of course, what evening will you be joining us on?
B: We will need the reservation for Tuesday night.
A: What time would you like the reservation for?
B: We would prefer 7:00 or 7:30.
A: How many people will you need the reservation for?
B: There will be 4 of us.
A: Fine, I can seat you at 7:00 on Tuesday, if you would kindly give me your name.
B: Thank you. The last name is Foster.
A: See you at 7:00 this Tuesday, Mr. Foster.
B: Thank you so much. I appreciate your help.


CONTOH VIDEO "MAKING RESERVATION"  lihat disini

sumber: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVo0_01S2jY

ENGLISH FOR SMK "Expression of Gratitude/ Thanking"

Expression of Gratitude/ Thanking

Gratitude is an expression that we show or say to express grateful feeling to other people, when speaking English, you say “thanks” very often please say “thank you” when people give you something and give you compliment, etc.

A.Expression of Gratitude/ Thanking
The common expressions to thank somebody are :
·         Thank you
·         Thanks
Emphatic ways of thanking:
·         Thank you very much
·         Thank you so much
·         Thank a lot
You can not say “thank you a lot” or  thank  lots”
If you want to indicate way you are thanking, you can say:
“Thank you for …” or “ Thank for …”
Eg :
·         Thank you for your coming
·         Thanks for your presence
If you want to make your gratitude more formal, you can use :
·          I want to thank you for ….
·         I want to tell you for ….
·         I want to tell you how grateful I am ….
·         I’m extremely grateful to you for ….
·         I’m grateful for ….
B. Expressions that need response of thank
·         Congratulations
·         Congratulations to you
·         Congratulations on your success
·         Congratulations on passing your exam
·         Congratulations on getting a new job etc
Note :
The response is “thank you”,
To respond to thanks can say :
·          You’re welcome
·         That’s all right
·         That’s OK
·         It’s a pleasure
·         Pleasure
·         It is no trouble
·         It is nothing
·         Not at all 
Don’t mention it (old fashioned)